Denosumab is used for the treatment of osteoporosis in women who have passed menopause. Osteoporosis weakens bones that makes them fragile and more likely to break. It develops slowly over several years and is frequently only diagnosed when a fall or sudden impact causes a bone to break. This condition is not usually painful until a bone is broken. Although a broken bone is often the first sign of osteoporosis, some older people develop the characteristic stooped posture.  The stage before osteoporosis is called osteopenia. This is when a bone density scan shows you have lower bone density than the average for your age, but not low enough to be classed as osteoporosis. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t keep up with the loss of old bone. Some signs and symptoms of this condition may include:

  • Loss of height over time
  • Back pain caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone that breaks much more easily than expected

This medication may also be used for the treatment of bone loss that is caused by prostate cancer in men. Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate which is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that creates the seminal fluid. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. This cancer usually grows slowly and is initially confined to the prostate gland. Prostate cancer may cause no signs and symptoms in the early stages. If the cancer is more advanced, the sign and symptoms may be:

  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Trouble urinating
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Bone pain

Denosumab belongs to the class of medications called monoclonal bodies. This slows bone loss to help maintain strong bones. This also reduces the risk of broken bone or fractures. Denosumab prevents certain cells in the body from breaking down bone. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved this prescription. This product comes as a sterile, clear, and preservative-free solution. Each 1 mL single-use prefilled syringe contains 60 mg of Denosumab.

How does Denosumab work?

In women who are already in her menopausal stage, blood levels of their hormone start to lessen. This may result in an increase in the breakdown of bone by osteoclasts. In which it can lead to a loss of bone density. Bone loss is particularly quick for the first ten years after the menopause. It may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis may also occur in men having treatment for prostate cancer. The treatment works by decreasing the amount of testosterone in the blood. In which it has a similar effect on bone in men to reduced estrogen levels in women. 

Denosumab recognizes and binds to a specific protein that normally activates the osteoclasts. By binding to this protein, this medication stops it from activating the osteoclasts. This prevents the development, activity, and survival of the osteoclasts. This also stops them from breaking down bone. Therefore, this helps to keep the bones strong and less likely to break.

How to use Denosumab?

The dosage will depend on your medical condition, age, weight, and response to the treatment. Your doctor may start at a low dose and gradually increase it. You must take this medication exactly as it is prescribed. Do not take more or less than it is given by your doctor.

Denosumab is given by injection under your skin in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. This is usually given every 6 months or as directed by your doctor.

Before using this product, check it visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Clean the injection site with rubbing alcohol before injecting each dose. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely. To get the most benefit from it, use the medication regularly. Remember to use the prescription at the same time each day. Let your doctor know if your condition does not improve or if it gets worse. If you missed a dose, take it as soon as you remember it. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and follow your regular schedule. Do not double the dose to make up for the missed dose. Consult your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it gets worse.

What are the side effects of Denosumab?

  • Weakness
  • Back pain
  • Constipation
  • Low calcium levels
  • Pain in your arms and legs
  • Muscle pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Anemia
  • Skin problems such as blisters, eczema, dry skin, peeling, redness, or small bumps

Tell your doctor right away if you these serious side effects including:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe stomach or abdominal pain
  • Trouble hearing, ear pain or drainage
  • Weight loss
  • Flu symptoms
  • Night sweats, chills, or fever
  • Bloody or pink urine
  • Painful, frequent, or burning urination
  • Joint, muscle, or bone pain
  • New or unusual hip or thigh pain
  • Jaw pain

Warnings and Precautions

  • Denosumab may cause serious infections of the abdomen, skin, bladder, or ear. Tell your doctor right away if you experience any of the symptoms as they may develop an infection.
  • Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you ever had an allergic reaction to it. Tell as well if you have any allergies.
  • This is not recommended for use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age.
  • Denosumab should be used with caution in smokers, people with poor oral hygiene, cancer, anemia, infections, and severely decreased kidney function.
  • This should not be used in people with a low level of calcium in their blood and with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance. In people having treatment with other medicines that contain Denosumab to reduce damage from cancer that has spread to the bones, this is not for use.
  • During pregnancy, this drug should not be used.
  • Do no use this for the treatment of other diseases without the consent of a doctor.
  • You should not share this with others even if they are experiencing the same symptoms as yours.