According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are beyond 160 vaccine efforts are presently ongoing in the global push to stop the pandemic. Here are some vaccines and how it works that is most likely for COVID-19;
1. ADENOVIRUS VACCINE
Adenovirus exists in the wild in humans. Typically, it causes mild infections like the common cold. It has also been inherently caused to express viral antigens found in the new coronavirus. Usually, it is those of the notorious spike protein. It is what the coronavirus uses to interrupt into human cells. When adenoviruses were put into a vaccine, it triggers an immune response in the human body which protects against COVID-19.
2. RNA VACCINE
Even though conformist vaccines work by offering the immune system of the body with the antigens consequent from it or deactivated actual virus. It also gives mRNA into cells means that they made the needed viral proteins directly inside the human body. mRNA is the molecule that takes instructions from DNA to the protein factories of cells. In this case, the RNA sequence is taken from the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome. Wherein, it stimulates an immune response that must later stop the coronavirus disease. The advantage of this vaccine is the faster production process, cheaper, and it makes them potentially the most scalable to tackle a global pandemic.
3. INACTIVATED PATHOGEN
The old-style vaccine method that is used over countless decades is to give a shot to someone using the inactivated virus. This arouses the immune system to create antibodies. It is while the virus is either killed before injection or weakened sufficiently. These inactivated viruses are used against influenza.
The Chinese company Sinovac deliberate a vaccine by separating SARS-CoV-2 samples. It is from patients in the hospital who are infected. Before deactivating it with a chemical agent, they permit the virus to develop in cell lines. It’s formerly called PiCoVacc but has now simply become CoronaVac.
4. DNA VACCINE
The method does include injecting a piece of spherical DNA into human cells. This presented DNA codes for SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. These were then expressed by the cell and help prime the immune system to fight off an attack by COVID-19. Like mRNA, this is a new technology and no DNA vaccines have ever been fully developed to prevent the disease.
This DNA vaccine is from the leading developer Inovio. Wherein, against MERS, Inovio operated a DNA candidate vaccine as well. Various other teams are also working on DNA vaccine candidates for the new coronavirus.
5. VIRAL PROTEINS
A viral protein is another traditional process for vaccination. In the case of COVID-19, commonly the notorious spike proteins are spliced into different viruses which are the mas-produced. Virus-like particles might also be made in plants.
This is from Sanofi Pasteur and is reusing its previous SARS vaccine into coronavirus disease. The recombinant DNA method of it in cell lines has already been licensed to create an influenza vaccine. It was announced positive results from a trial of its COVID candidate vaccine and had a human trial in the summer.