Pyrazinamide is a prescriptionused for the treatment of tuberculosis. This is used with other medications totreat the condition. Tuberculosis is a potentially serious infection thatmainly affects your lungs. Through tiny droplets released into the air viacoughs and sneezes, the bacteria are spread from one person to another. Althoughyour body may harbor the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, your immune systemusually can prevent you from becoming sick. Signs and symptoms of activetuberculosis include:
- Coughing up blood
- Coughing that lasts three or more weeks
- Unintentional weight loss
- Chest pain or pain with breathing or coughing
- Night sweats
- Loss of appetite
Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body including your spine, kidneys, or brain. When the condition occurs outside your lungs, symptoms may vary according to the organs involved. Tuberculosis of the spine may give you back pain and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause blood in your urine.
Pyrazinamide is an antibiotic that stops the growth and spread of the bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections and will not work for viral infections (flu/common cold). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness. Pyrazinamide is a prescription approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This product is supplied as a tablet for oral use. Each tablet is available in a 500 mg dosage form with an active ingredient of Pyrazinamide. It is a white crystalline powder that is sparingly soluble in water and stable at room temperature. Pyrazinamide is an analog of nicotinamide and an anti-tuberculous agent.
How does Pyrazinamide work?
Pyrazinamide works by targetingand inactivating a bacterial enzyme called RNA-polymerase. The tuberculosisbacteria use RNA-polymerase to make essential proteins. It also copies itsgenetic information which is called the DNA. Without this enzyme, the bacteria cannotreproduce and they die. This drug is thought to prevent tuberculosis bacteriafrom making substances called mycolic acids. In which, it is needed to form thecell walls of the bacteria. As a result of the disruption in its metabolism andwithout a cell wall, the bacteria die.
Pyrazinamide works in a differentway to kill tuberculosis bacteria that have infected cells. There are two stages in thetreatment for tuberculosis. In the first two months, treatment is aimed atkilling as many bacteria as possible. As a result, some anti-TB medicationswith different mechanisms of action are used together. Besides, using different medicines together makes it lesslikely that bacteria will develop resistance to the treatment.
How to use Pyrazinamide?
The recommended dosage is basedon your medical condition, age, and response to the treatment. Your doctor maydirect you to start at a lower dose and eventually increase it. Pyrazinamide isto be taken by mouth. This is usually taken once or twice weekly or as directedby your doctor. You may take each dose with or without a meal. Swallow thetablet as a whole with a full glass of water. Do not break, chew, or crush it. Youshould start to feel better and have fewer symptoms after taking the medicinefor about 2 weeks. However, they must continue to take the drug every day untilyour doctor says to stop treatment. This will be for 2 months for Pyrazinamideand at least 6 months for other medicines.
You should take the right dose,not more or less. Continue to take this drug until the full prescription is doneeven if symptoms disappear. Stopping the medication too early or skipping dosesmay allow the bacteria to grow. It may also result in the return of theinfection and cause infection to be more difficult to treat. For the bestbenefit from this product, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times.If you are taking this medicationdaily,take it at the same time andin the same way each day. If you missed a dose, take it as soon as you rememberit. If it is almost time for your next dose, never mind the missed dose andcontinue your regular dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to make up forthe missed dose. Let your doctor know if your condition does not improve or ifit gets worse.
What are the side effects of Pyrazinamide?
Common side effects:
- Upset stomach
- Loss of appetite
- Mild muscle or joint pain
Tell your doctor if you haveunlikely but serious side effects of this medication such as:
- Painful or swollen joints
- Darkened urine
- Difficult urination
- Symptoms of liver disease (unusual tiredness orweakness, persistent nausea or vomiting, severe stomach or abdominal pain, andyellowing eyes or skin)
Warnings and Precautions
- While having this treatment, avoid drinking largeamounts of alcohol. It may increase the risk of side effects.
- You will need to have a blood test to check yourliver function before you start treatment with this drug.
- This is not recommended for use in children under8 years of age or weighing less than 30 kg.
- Before taking this medicine, you should have aneye test. If you notice any changes in your vision during treatment, you shouldstop taking Pyrazinamide and call your doctor right away.
- Some ingredients of this drug may discolor yoururine, saliva, or sweat. This is normal and not harmful.
- Keep this product out from the reach of children.
This medication should not beused in people:
- With jaundice, acute liver disease, and an acuteattack of gout
- With hereditary blood disorders called porphyrias
- Who have experienced before serious liver complicationsafter taking any medicines
Use this with caution in:
- Children and elderly people
- People with decreased liver and kidney function
- People with diabetes, HIV infection, and with ahistory of gout
- People who are malnourished and who drinkexcessive amounts of alcohol or who are dependent on alcohol
- People with a history of convulsions or psychoticillness
- People with poor vision or inflammation of the opticnerve that connects the eye to the brain