Denosumab is used for thetreatment of osteoporosis in women who have passed menopause. Osteoporosis weakensbone that makes them fragile and more likely to break. It develops slowly overseveral years and is frequently only diagnosed when a fall or sudden impactcauses a bone to break. This condition is not usually painful until a bone is broken.Although a broken bone is often the first sign of osteoporosis, some olderpeople develop the characteristic stooped posture.  The stage before osteoporosis is calledosteopenia. This is when a bone density scan shows you have lower bone densitythan the average for your age, but not low enough to be classed asosteoporosis. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down andreplaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t keep upwith the loss of old bone. Some signs and symptoms of this condition mayinclude:

  • Loss of height over time
  • Back pain caused by a fractured or collapsedvertebra
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone that breaks much more easily than expected

This medication may also be used for the treatment of bone loss that is caused by prostate cancer in men. Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate which is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that creates the seminal fluid. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. This cancer usually grows slowly and is initially confined to the prostate gland. Prostate cancer may cause no signs and symptoms in the early stages. If the cancer is more advanced, the sign and symptoms may be:

  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Trouble urinating
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Bone pain

Denosumab belongs to the class ofmedications called monoclonal bodies. This slows bone loss to help maintainstrong bones. This also reduces the risk of broken bone or fractures. Denosumabprevents certain cells in the body from breaking down bone. The Food and DrugAdministration (FDA) has already approved this prescription. This product comesas a sterile, clear, and preservative-free solution. Each 1 mL single-useprefilled syringe contains 60 mg of Denosumab.

Howdoes Denosumab work?

In women who are already in hermenopausal stage, blood levels of their hormone start to lessen. This mayresult in an increase in the breakdown of bone by osteoclasts. In which it canlead to a loss of bone density. Bone loss is particularly quick for the first tenyears after the menopause. It may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Osteoporosismay also occur in men having treatment for prostate cancer. The treatment worksby decreasing the amount of testosterone in the blood. In which it has asimilar effect on bone in men to reduced estrogen levels in women. 

Denosumab recognizes and binds toa specific protein that normally activates the osteoclasts. By binding to thisprotein, this medication stops it from activating the osteoclasts. Thisprevents the development, activity, and survival of the osteoclasts. This alsostops them from breaking down bone. Therefore, this helps to keep the bonesstrong and less likely to break.

Howto use Denosumab?

The dosage will depend on yourmedical condition, age, weight, and response to the treatment. Your doctor maystart at a low dose and gradually increase it. You must take this medicationexactly as it is prescribed. Do not take more or less than it is given by yourdoctor.

Denosumab is given by injection underyour skin in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. This is usually givenevery 6 months or as directed by your doctor.

Before using this product, checkit visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not usethe liquid. Clean the injection site with rubbing alcohol before injecting eachdose. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely. To get the mostbenefit from it, use the medication regularly. Remember to use the prescriptionat the same time each day. Let your doctor know if your condition does notimprove or if it gets worse. If you missed a dose, take it as soon as youremember it. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose andfollow your regular schedule. Do not double the dose to make up for the misseddose. Consult your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it getsworse.

Whatare the side effects of Denosumab?

  • Weakness
  • Back pain
  • Constipation
  • Low calcium levels
  • Pain in your arms and legs
  • Muscle pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Anemia
  • Skin problems such as blisters, eczema, dry skin,peeling, redness, or small bumps

Tell your doctor right away ifyou these serious side effects including:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe stomach or abdominal pain
  • Trouble hearing, ear pain or drainage
  • Weight loss
  • Flu symptoms
  • Night sweats, chills, or fever
  • Bloody or pink urine
  • Painful, frequent, or burning urination
  • Joint, muscle, or bone pain
  • New or unusual hip or thigh pain
  • Jaw pain

Warningsand Precautions

  • Denosumab may cause serious infections of the abdomen, skin, bladder, or ear. Tell your doctor right away if you experience any of the symptoms as they may develop an infection.
  • Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you ever had an allergic reaction to it. Tell as well if you have any allergies.
  • This is not recommended for use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age.
  • Denosumab should be used with caution in smokers, people with poor oral hygiene, cancer, anemia, infections, and severely decreased kidney function.
  • This should not be used in people with a low level of calcium in their blood and with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance. In people having treatment with other medicines that contain Denosumab to reduce damage from cancer that has spread to the bones, this is not for use.
  • During pregnancy, this drug should not be used.
  • Do no use this for the treatment of other diseases without the consent of a doctor.
  • You should not share this with others even if they are experiencing the same symptoms as yours.